An illustration of the different elements in the five models Amazon uses to calculate its carbon footprint.

Carbon footprint

Amazon’s corporate carbon footprint quantifies the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributed to our direct and indirect operational activities. With this carbon footprint, we measured our total impact on the climate, mapped the largest activities contributing to this impact, and used this information to develop meaningful reduction goals, including our overall goal to reach net zero carbon across Amazon by 2040. We included emissions from Amazon-operated and third-party freight, electricity use, Amazon-branded products, capital goods, business travel, packaging, customer trips to Amazon’s stores, and other purchased goods and services. This system boundary meets the widely adopted international standards (GHG Protocol and ISO 14064) and was externally assured by Bureau Veritas.

Amazon's enterprise-wide carbon footprint for the 2018 fiscal year

CategoryMillion Metric Tons (mmt) CO2e
Emissions from Direct Operations4.98
Fossil fuels4.70
Electricity Emissions4.71
Emissions from Indirect Sources34.71
Corporate purchases and Amazon-branded product emissions (e.g., operating expenses, business travel, and Amazon-branded product manufacturing, use phase, and end-of-life)11.95
Capital goods4.64
Other indirect emissions (e.g., third-party transportation, packaging, upstream energy related)13.89
Lifecycle emissions from customer trips to Amazon's physical stores4.23
Amazon's Total Footprint44.40

Amazon's carbon intensity metric, measured as grams carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) per dollar of Gross Merchandise Sales (GMS), equals 128.9 g CO2e per dollar (USD).

What we measure
Five models work together to provide a detailed view of our footprint.
  • An illustration of a telescope symbolizing the financial model in Amazon's carbon footprint formula.
    A nimble, top down financial model that helps us see the big picture and prioritize where we should dive deep.
  • An illustration of an electric delivery vehicle symbolizing the transportation model in Amazon's carbon footprint formula.
    We track the emissions resulting from shipping products to Amazon warehouses, between warehouses, and outbound to our customers’ homes, Amazon lockers, and other pickup points.
  • An illustration of an light bulb symbolizing the electricity model in Amazon's carbon footprint formula.
    We account for the impacts of the energy consumed by our offices, data centers, and warehouses, as well as the benefits of the renewable energy we generate around the globe.
  • An illustration of an unfolded cardboard package symbolizing the packaging model in Amazon's carbon footprint formula.
    We look carefully at the materials and processes behind all the boxes, mailers, and other packing items Amazon adds to the products we sell.
  • An illustration of an Amazon Kindle device symbolizing the devices model in Amazon's carbon footprint formula.
    We have a detailed view of our devices' manufacturing, use, and end-of-life phases.
Learn more about the science and technology behind our carbon footprint.
Greenhouse gas emissions verification statement from Bureau Veritas.
Explore more from
Latest news
See how we put our scale and inventive culture to work on building a sustainable future.