Amazon is strongly committed to conducting our business in a lawful and ethical manner, including engaging with suppliers who respect human rights, provide safe and inclusive workplaces, and promote a sustainable future.
About Our Supply Chain
Our mission is for our products and services to be provided in a way that respects human rights and the environment. Our global teams work closely with suppliers to communicate our standards and help suppliers build their capacity to provide working environments that are safe and respectful of human rights.
- Our Approach to Responsible SourcingOur standards are derived from the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Core Conventions of the International Labour Organization (ILO), and the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. To ensure our policies and programs incorporate these internationally recognized human rights standards, we conduct formal benchmarking with industry peers and multi-stakeholder organizations to continually improve our program.
We regularly review our Supply Chain Standards against policies developed by industry associations (such as the Responsible Business Alliance and the Consumer Goods Forum) and in consultation with external stakeholders including Nest, Business for Social Responsibility, Impactt Limited, and Verité.
- Our Sourcing FootprintHundreds of thousands of workers, employed by suppliers around the globe, make our Amazon-branded products. The suppliers that produce Amazon-branded apparel, consumer electronics, food and beverage, and home goods products are shown on our supply chain map (below), which is updated regularly and is available to download.
We believe supply chain transparency is crucial to our approach to human rights due diligence and ensuring worker protections. We publish our supplier list to provide customers and external stakeholders visibility into where we source and to contribute to transparency efforts across industries. When we receive information about potential issues in our supply chain, we investigate and take appropriate action to remediate.
- Assessment of RiskWe routinely evaluate our supply chain to understand the highest risks to workers and prioritize our efforts. To do this, we engage key internal and external stakeholders, analyze our risks using international risk indices such as the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators, run worker surveys, and conduct assessments that include worker interviews, management interviews, document review, and on-site visits. We regularly consult industry experts to review our approach to risk assessment against globally recognized international standards and industry best practices.
- Supplier AssessmentsOur Responsible Sourcing Program focuses on suppliers of Amazon-branded products, consisting of Amazon Private Brands and Devices and a curated selection of brands exclusively sold on Amazon. Through this program, we engage in robust supplier due diligence, prioritizing mechanisms that drive continuous improvement.
We are committed to working with our suppliers to remedy issues and establish systems to prevent future issues. We expect our suppliers to consistently monitor and enforce our standards in their own operations and supply chain as well as make improvements to meet or exceed our expectations. We use independent auditors to verify supplier compliance with our standards though regular on-site inspections and confidential worker interviews.
Learn more about our Supplier Assessments.
Amazon Policies and Standards
Supply Chain StandardsWe set a high bar for ourselves and our suppliers. Our Supply Chain Standards detail the requirements and expectations for suppliers, vendors, and service providers throughout our supply chain, and suppliers commit to these standards as a condition of doing business with us.
Supplier ManualOur Supplier Manual provides guidance and resources to suppliers of Amazon-branded products on how to meet and exceed the expectations outlined in our Supply Chain Standards.
4,082Supplier assessments conducted in 2019In 2019, we conducted a total of 4,082 assessments to help us determine which suppliers to work with and, for those we do engage, to help us continually understand and improve those suppliers’ practices. Our approach is based on a commitment to workers and to continuous improvement; we put the safety and interests of workers first.
Beyond individual supplier improvements, in 2019, we invested in programs to address complex regional and systemic issues identified through assessment data, risk assessments, or by external stakeholders.
Wages and Benefits
Health and Safety
In 2019, we learned that products sold by third-party sellers in the Amazon Store were potentially linked to factories with unsafe working conditions in Bangladesh. We took immediate action to remind sellers that Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards apply to all products sold on Amazon and that under those standards, Amazon expects all products sold in the Amazon Store or provided to Amazon to be manufactured or produced in safe, healthy, and inclusive work environments.
Hundreds of thousands of workers, employed by suppliers around the globe, make our Amazon-branded products. The suppliers that produce Amazon-branded apparel, consumer electronics, food and beverage, and home goods products are shown on our supply chain map, which is updated regularly and is available to download.
Our Supply Chain Across the Globe
Supply Chain Commitments
We evaluate our supply chain to identify the industries, countries, and issues where we have the greatest opportunities to identify and address risks and have a positive impact on workers. In the event we identify an issue in our supply chain, we act fast and prioritize solutions from the workers’ point of view.
- Safe WorkplacesSafe and healthy workplaces are a top priority for Amazon. We have global teams who partner with suppliers to increase worker awareness of safety issues, promote worker participation in their facility’s safety culture, and promote initiatives focused on the well-being of workers on issues that matter most to them.
Our suppliers must provide workers with a safe and healthy work environment; suppliers must, at a minimum, comply with applicable laws regarding working conditions. Additionally, we are committed to driving improvement in these key priority areas:
- Occupational safety, including adequate machine safeguarding, and ensuring suppliers continually identify, evaluate, and control physically demanding tasks to ensure that worker health and safety is not jeopardized;
- Emergency preparedness and response planning;
- Sanitation and housing where, if suppliers provide residential facilities for their workers, they must provide clean and safe accommodations.
We conduct on-site assessments of Amazon-branded suppliers to determine safety conditions throughout our business relationship. This includes assessments of protections such as adequate fire safety systems, sanitary dormitories and facilities, and adequate machine safeguarding.
We require these suppliers to address material safety issues prior to beginning production with Amazon. Assessment results are reviewed regularly by the leadership of our Amazon-branded businesses, and corrective action plans are implemented with suppliers as needed.
- Freely Chosen EmploymentWe will not tolerate the use of forced labor in our supply chain. Our Supply Chain Standards prohibit all forms of forced labor and human trafficking; this includes charging workers recruitment fees, holding passports or personal documentation, and coercion to work through threats of deportation or contacting immigration authorities.
During assessments of Amazon-branded suppliers, we track where workers migrated from and how much they paid in recruitment fees. If fees have been paid, we require the supplier to reimburse workers in full. Forced labor is a hidden crime that is hard to combat. We recognize real progress in this space will only be achieved through collaborative action—by companies, governments, and civil society—to spur system-wide change.
Learn more about our approach to forced labor in our annual Modern Slavery Statement. Amazon is currently working with these organizations to devise holistic approaches to combating forced labor:
Polaris: Amazon supports Polaris, a nonprofit that assists trafficking victims and survivors. Through the U.S. National Human Trafficking Hotline, Polaris has identified and responded to over 63,000 cases of human trafficking and labor exploitation since 2007. AWS works with Polaris to infuse cutting-edge technology into its infrastructure to accelerate the development of the largest known U.S. data set on trafficking. Polaris uses that data to understand and improve the way trafficking is identified, how victims and survivors are assisted, and how to prevent this abuse.
Responsible Labor Initiative: The Responsible Labor Initiative is a multi-industry, multi-stakeholder initiative focused on ensuring that the rights of workers vulnerable to forced labor in global supply chains are consistently respected and promoted.
Tech Against Trafficking: Tech Against Trafficking (TAT) is a coalition of technology companies collaborating with global experts to help eradicate human trafficking using technology. Amazon sits on the TAT steering committee and has leveraged the expertise and resources of AWS to help scale tech solutions in the anti-trafficking field.
Thorn: Thorn, an organization that builds technology to defend children from sexual abuse, leverages AWS architecture and machine learning tools in their product Spotlight. Spotlight’s sophisticated machine learning capabilities save time for investigators by automatically flagging ads likely to represent at-risk children. Investigators can set customized alerts and search Spotlight’s constantly growing database of ads to aid in their investigations. Spotlight has helped identify more than 14,000 child sex trafficking victims.
Unseen: We have made a three-year commitment to work with Unseen, a UK anti-slavery charity that operates the UK Modern Slavery and Exploitation Helpline and provides immediate and long-term support to potential victims of modern slavery.
- 100% of Amazon employees who drive trucks complete Truckers Against Trafficking training by the end of 2020.
- Launch training for Amazon suppliers on responsible recruitment practices by the end of 2020.
- Empowering WomenQuality jobs for women translate to positive impacts for communities, and we are actively working to empower women to make their own decisions on health, finances, and career development. This includes collaborating with globally recognized programs such as Better Work and Business for Social Responsibility’s HERproject. Through our partnership with HERproject, we engage suppliers in China, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and India.
As of June 2020, we had reached over 8,700 women with training on health and financial skills, building the capacity of workers and factory management to combat gender-based discrimination in the workplace.
- Launch empowerment programs to reach over 25,000 women in our supply chain by 2023.
- Fair WagesWe are committed to working closely with suppliers, business partners, and multi-stakeholder associations to monitor and promote continuous improvement in working conditions, including fair and on-time payment of wages. We have dedicated teams across the globe that work directly with suppliers to track and report performance against these standards.
Our suppliers are required to pay legally required compensation (including overtime and benefits) and we encourage them to continuously evaluate whether their workers earn enough to meet their basic needs and the needs of their families.
We require Amazon-branded suppliers in a number of regions to enroll in Better Work—a partnership between the International Labor Organization and the International Finance Corporation focused on improving working conditions in the garment industry and making the sector more competitive. By working with suppliers and training workers on their rights, Better Work is able to help workers improve wages over time.
- Launch in-depth research into fair wages within our Amazon-branded products supply chains in 2021.
- Environmental ProtectionOur aim is to ensure that the manufacturing of our products does not cause unnecessary environmental harm, and positively impacts people and communities. We are a member of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (Coalition), an industry-wide group of leading apparel and footwear brands, retailers, manufacturers, non-governmental organizations, academic experts, and government organizations working to reduce the environmental and social impacts of apparel products around the world.
We encourage our Amazon-branded suppliers to evaluate their practices using the Coalition’s Higg Index, a tool to help manufacturers measure the social and environmental performance of their facilities. We are committed to driving adoption of this assessment and helping our suppliers understand their environmental impact.
- Collect environmental performance data from 200 suppliers by the end of 2021.
COVID-19 Relief Efforts
$1 MillionAmazon is committed to supporting our suppliers, their workers, and their communities as they are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. We have dedicated over $1 million in initial investments to support response and recovery efforts in our supply chain.
We work with industry partners to tackle systemic issues and implement programs that support continuous improvement for our suppliers and workers. As a part of our due diligence efforts to identify, prevent, and mitigate adverse impacts, we leverage internal and external data, and guidance from external stakeholders including industry experts, civil society groups, and non-governmental organizations.
Amazon began working with the Amader Kotha Helpline in 2020. The Amader Kotha Helpline provides workers with a mechanism to report and resolve safety and other concerns in the ready-made garment sector in Bangladesh. The Helpline was initially established as a project of the Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety following the Rana Plaza tragedy. In July 2018, the Helpline became an independent initiative available to all garment workers with the support of factories and brands.
In 2019, Amazon began working with amfori, a leading global business association for open and sustainable trade. Amfori brings together over 2,000 retailers, importers, brands, and associations from over 40 countries to drive social performance and improvements across global supply chains.
In 2019, Amazon began engaging with Better Buying, a global initiative that carries out independent research to promote improved purchasing practices, stronger supply chain partnerships, and mutually beneficial sustainability outcomes. The initiative provides retailers, brands, and suppliers with a cloud-based platform to obtain data-driven insights into purchasing-related activities. Better Buying enables suppliers to anonymously rate the purchasing practices of their buyers and works alongside these buyers toward improved practices.
Business for Social Responsibility
Amazon is a member of Business for Social Responsibility (BSR), a global nonprofit that works with partners across business, civil society, and government sectors to build a just and sustainable world. Amazon participates in working groups such as Future of Fuels (a collaboration with a mission to drive a sustainable transition to low-carbon commercial road freight), Clean Cargo Working Group (an initiative to reduce the environmental impacts of global goods transportation), and Tech Against Trafficking (a coalition of technology companies collaborating with global experts to help eradicate human trafficking using technology).
Amazon joined BSR's HERproject, a collaborative initiative that strives to empower low-income women working in global supply chains. Bringing together global brands, their suppliers, and local NGOs, HERproject drives impact for women and business via workplace-based interventions on health, financial inclusion, and gender equality. Since its inception in 2007, HERproject has worked in more than 700 workplaces across 14 countries and has increased the well-being, confidence, and economic potential of more than 800,000 women.
In 2019, Amazon began working with Nest, a nonprofit focused on the handworker economy to increase global workforce inclusivity, improve women’s well-being beyond factories, and preserve important cultural traditions around the world. Nest uses radical transparency, data-driven development, and fair market access to connect craftspeople, brands, and consumers in a circular and human-centric value chain.
Responsible Business Alliance
Amazon joined the Responsible Business Alliance (RBA), a nonprofit coalition of companies committed to supporting the rights and wellbeing of workers and communities worldwide affected by the global electronics supply chain. The RBA is the world's largest industry coalition dedicated to electronics supply chain responsibility.
Responsible Labor Initiative
Amazon is a member of the Responsible Labor Initiative (RLI), a multi-industry, multi-stakeholder initiative run by the Responsible Business Alliance. The RLI is focused on ensuring that the rights of workers vulnerable to forced labor in global supply chains are consistently respected and promoted.
Responsible Minerals Initiative
Amazon joined the Responsible Minerals Initiative (RMI), an initiative of the Responsible Business Alliance, which provides companies with tools and resources to make sourcing decisions that improve regulatory compliance and support responsible sourcing from conflict-affected and high-risk areas. Founded in 2008, the RMI has grown into one of the most utilized and respected resources for companies from a range of industries addressing responsible mineral sourcing issues in their supply chains.
Public-Private Alliance for Responsible Minerals Trade
Amazon joined the Public-Private Alliance for Responsible Minerals Trade (PPA) in 2020. The PPA is a multi-sector initiative of 44 leaders in civil society, minerals supply chain actors, and government that supports projects in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the surrounding Great Lakes Region of Central Africa that improve the due diligence and governance systems needed for ethical supply chains. The PPA has raised over $2 million in private sector contributions toward on-the-ground activities supporting responsible trade and the conditions enabling it, complementing more than $20 million in parallel funding from USAID for infrastructure and traceability in Congo. With this funding, the PPA has tested tools for enhanced upstream due diligence and reporting, made grants to assess models for collecting and disseminating due diligence data, and supported civil society training and mechanisms to monitor and report fraud and smuggling.
In 2019, Amazon began working with the International Labor Organization’s SCORE Program, a lean manufacturing program focused on improving productivity and working conditions in small- and medium-sized manufacturers. The SCORE program operates through a network of certified trainers with backgrounds in industrial engineering. The training process aims to address the individual needs of each enterprise, demonstrate lean manufacturing techniques that are proven to increase production efficiency, and offer value for money training—with cost’s recovered as quickly as one month.
Supplier Ethical Data Exchange
Amazon is a member of the Supplier Ethical Data Exchange (Sedex), a global nonprofit organization that provides manufacturers and retailers a platform to manage responsible sourcing data and monitor continuous improvement across their supply chains.
Sustainable Apparel Coalition
Amazon joined the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (SAC), an industry alliance on sustainable production for apparel, footwear, and textiles. The Coalition uses the Higg Index, a standardized value chain measurement suite of tools for all industry participants. These tools measure environmental and social labor impacts across the value chain. With this data, the industry can address inefficiencies, improve sustainability performance, and achieve the environmental and social transparency consumers are demanding.
Tech Against Trafficking
Amazon joined the steering committee of Tech Against Trafficking (TAT), an initiative of Business for Social Responsibility (BSR). TAT is a coalition of technology companies collaborating with global experts to help eradicate human trafficking using technology. TAT works with civil society, law enforcement, academia, technologists, and survivors to advance and scale the use of technology to prevent, disrupt, and reduce human trafficking and increase and expand survivors’ access to resources.
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