When possible, AWS incorporates direct evaporative technology to cool our data centers, reducing energy and water consumption. During cooler months, outside air is supplied directly to the data center without using any water. During the hottest months of the year, outside air is cooled through an evaporative process using water before being pushed into the server rooms, and we have optimized these cooling systems to minimize water usage. AWS is constantly innovating the design of our cooling systems to further reduce water use, and we adapt to changing weather conditions based on real-time sensor data.
To help conserve local drinking water sources, AWS is expanding our use of non-potable water for cooling purposes. In Northern Virginia, AWS was the first data center operator to be approved to use recycled water with direct evaporative cooling technology. We partnered with Loudoun Water to demonstrate the benefits of recycled water for industrial cooling applications and shared our operational best practices for using recycled water in our data centers. In the AWS U.S. West (Oregon) Region, we partnered with a local utility to use non-potable water for multiple data centers, and in Northern California, we are retrofitting AWS data centers to use recycled water.
AWS is working with local utilities to expand distribution infrastructure and drive faster implementation and adoption of recycled water for data center cooling applications, in order to reduce our usage of potable water.
AWS is implementing on-site modular water treatment systems in multiple regions. As water is cycled through evaporative cooling units, minerals build up as water evaporates, eventually reaching a level of concentration that requires replacement with fresh water. On-site water treatment allows us to remove scale-forming minerals and reuse water for more cycles. Increasing our “cycles of concentration” allows us to continue to reduce the water intake needed to cool our data centers.
In each infrastructure region where we use water for cooling, AWS has developed water efficiency metrics to determine and monitor optimal water use for each AWS Region, and we employ a data-driven approach to select the most effective water reduction technologies. Water metrics from each AWS Region helps us evaluate technologies and understand their long-term impacts on our water usage, in order to increase efficiency as our infrastructure grows and we expand to new regions.
We are partnering with utilities to connect directly to utility water meters, and we are also installing our own meters to track real-time water usage to provide consistent data for our operations and sustainability teams. By analyzing this data, AWS can identify opportunities to reduce water usage and rapidly make operational changes, rather than waiting for bills or usage reports.
Water for IrrigationIn our U.S. West (Oregon) Region, we partnered with the City of Umatilla and the West Extension Irrigation District to deliver water to farmers. Since our cooling water is not dirty, instead of sending it to a wastewater treatment plant, we deliver it to the local community to be repurposed for irrigation.
Community WaterWe are partnering with Water.org and WaterAid in India and Indonesia, where water filtration plants, rainwater harvesting systems, and groundwater recharge projects will bring a combined 250 million gallons of water per year to 165,000 people.
Watershed RestorationWe are funding watershed restoration efforts with The Nature Conservancy in Cape Town and São Paulo that will increase water supply availability by 41 million gallons per year.