A photo of Amazon's Day One building and the construction of the Seattle Spheres.
Sustainability Question Bank

Sustainability Question Bank

Sustainable Operations
What is The Climate Pledge?
The Climate Pledge is a commitment to achieve net-zero carbon by 2040—10 years ahead of the Paris agreement. Signatories of the Pledge form a cross-sector community of companies, organizations, and partners working together to address the climate crisis and solve the challenges of decarbonizing our economy. Joining The Climate Pledge is an opportunity for companies to be part of a community of leading businesses committed to transformational action to protect the global economy from the disruptive risks associated with climate change. The Climate Pledge has over 100 signatories across 25 industries and 16 countries as of June 2021.

Signatories of The Climate Pledge agree to three principal areas of action:

  1. Regular Reporting: Measure and report greenhouse gas emissions on a regular basis.
  2. Carbon Elimination: Implement decarbonization strategies in line with the Paris Agreement through real business changes and innovations, including efficiency improvements, renewable energy, materials reductions, and other carbon emission elimination strategies.
  3. Credible Offsets: Neutralize any remaining emissions with additional, quantifiable, real, permanent, and socially-beneficial offsets to achieve net-zero annual carbon emissions by 2040.

Learn more about Amazon’s commitment to The Climate Pledge.
What is Amazon’s approach to renewable energy?
As part of our goal to reach net-zero carbon by 2040, Amazon is on a path to powering our operations with 100% renewable energy by 2025—five years ahead of our original target of 2030. In 2020, we became the world’s largest corporate purchaser of renewable energy, reaching 65% renewable energy across our business. These projects helped power the 24 million MWh of electricity consumed by Amazon in 2020 and led to a 4% reduction in our carbon emissions from purchased electricity from 2019 to 2020. Scaling up the use of renewable energy is central to Amazon’s strategy to decarbonize our operations. Clean energy sources, such as wind and solar, lessen Amazon’s reliance on fossil fuels to power our operations and the services we provide to customers. We procure new renewable energy beyond the existing grid mix through off-site contracts for wind and solar, on-site rooftop solar installations, and green tariffs with local utilities that result in new projects being added to the grid.

Explore an interactive map of our global renewable energy projects and learn more about Amazon’s commitment to renewable energy.
What is Amazon doing to reduce its carbon emissions and address climate-related risks?
Across our company, we are laying the groundwork for the next 20 years of accelerated progress, starting with real-time carbon reporting structures to equip teams with actionable data and help them reduce carbon emissions in every part of our business. At the same time, we are making significant investments in both proven and emerging technologies to address the largest contributors to our carbon footprint—deploying new renewable energy projects, electrifying our fleet of delivery vehicles, retrofitting buildings, and more. We are also helping to build a cross-sector community of companies, organizations, and partners through The Climate Pledge to collectively solve the challenges of decarbonizing our economy.

Learn more about Amazon’s approach to measuring and reducing carbon emissions in our operations.
What is Shipment Zero?
Shipment Zero is our goal to deliver 50% of Amazon shipments with net-zero carbon by 2030. Achieving Shipment Zero means that the fulfillment operations we undertake to deliver customer shipments are net-zero carbon—from the fulfillment center where an item is picked off the shelf, to the materials used to package the item, and the mode of transportation that gets the package to the customer’s door.

Learn more about Shipment Zero.
What is Amazon doing to promote sustainable transportation?
Transportation is a major component of Amazon’s business operations and a key part of our plan to reach net-zero carbon by 2040. In 2019, Amazon ordered 100,000 custom electric delivery vehicles from Rivian—the largest order ever of electric delivery vehicles. We plan to have 10,000 vehicles on the road as early as 2022 and all 100,000 vehicles deployed by 2030. We expanded our European electric delivery fleet with an order for 1,800 electric vans from Mercedes-Benz, a signatory of The Climate Pledge. In India, we are adding 10,000 electric vehicles to our existing fleet by 2025, including two-wheeler, three-wheeler, and four-wheeler vehicles designed and manufactured by local manufacturers. In dense, urban centers like New York City, Paris, and Tokyo, we deliver packages by bicycle and on foot, using push walkers.

As we expand our electric delivery fleet worldwide, we are building the infrastructure to support our vehicles and drivers. We are retrofitting existing facilities with charging technology and adding thousands of charging stations across hundreds of facilities for our partners to use in North America and Europe. We are also partnering with publicly accessible charging networks to allow drivers to top off with clean electricity when traveling outside of our charging network.

We are investing in a variety of solutions to decarbonize our freight transportation network. In 2020, we ordered battery electric trucks from Lion Electric, and in 2021, we began testing hydrogen-powered trucks. We also launched compressed natural gas (CNG) tractors, which are fueled by renewable natural gas sourced from landfills and dairy farms. To reduce the carbon emissions of air transport, we are investing in sustainable aviation fuels, which are derived from renewable resources and generate fewer carbon emissions than standard aviation fuel does. In 2020, Amazon Air secured 6 million gallons of sustainable aviation fuel, signaling our demand for low-carbon aviation fuel alternatives.

Transforming the transportation industry from one that uses fossil fuels to one based on clean energy requires cross-sector stakeholder engagement among vehicle manufacturers, battery and component suppliers, state and local policymakers, fleet operators, and utilities. Amazon is working with industry experts and organizations to advance sustainability through collaboration and innovation in the transportation and logistics industries.

Learn more about Amazon’s sustainable transportation initiatives.
What is Amazon doing to promote green building practices?
Amazon is transitioning our buildings to be net zero carbon, powered by renewable energy, and highly energy efficient, with demonstrated reductions in embodied carbon—the emissions associated with a building’s construction materials. We are also working to improve the resource efficiency of our buildings beyond energy, with a focus on water and waste reduction strategies across our facilities. In all of our buildings, we seek to create safe, productive, and inspiring spaces that support the health and well-being of our employees, local environment, and community, both inside and outdoors.

Our flagship Seattle campus features some of our most innovative sustainable design practices. Below ground, a district energy system heats many of our buildings in the Denny Triangle neighborhood using waste heat generated from a neighboring data center. Above ground, employees and visitors can enjoy The Spheres, an alternative workplace and indoor plant conservatory, with 40,000 plants from the cloud forest regions of more than 30 countries, and a 4,000-square-foot green wall. In Luxembourg, efficient chillers and an advanced building management system cut energy costs, while rooftop beehives supply honey, and food is served in compostable and biodegradable containers.

Amazon’s operations facilities include a variety of building types and sizes where we process orders for our customers. To minimize energy use, these facilities feature state-of-the-art technology and are designed with efficient building systems. We are expanding our use of building control system technology and real-time data analytics to optimize our heating and cooling systems for occupant comfort while operating as efficiently as possible.

Amazon Physical Stores provide a range of retail and grocery shopping experiences for our customers. Our physical stores use highly efficient LED lighting, with energy-reducing lighting controls, and incorporate natural daylighting techniques, such as skylights and large windows. Across our grocery channels, we are replacing conventional refrigerants with natural alternatives that have a lower ozone depletion and global warming potential.

AWS is continuously working to increase the efficiency of our facilities, and our scale allows us to achieve higher resource utilization and efficiency than typical on-premises data centers. When possible, we incorporate direct evaporative technology for cooling our data centers, reducing energy and water consumption. AWS has also demonstrated our commitment to water stewardship by using reclaimed or recycled water instead of potable water in multiple regions, and we are working with local utilities to expand the use of reclaimed water.

Learn more about our commitment to sustainable buildings.
Does Amazon have certified green buildings?
Yes. We are committed to holding our buildings to the highest standards of sustainable design, and we pursue third-party building certification when doing so accelerates our impact. Buildings across our Arlington HQ are designed to achieve LEEDv4 Platinum certification, the highest green building certification by the U.S. Green Building Council. The design of our Arlington HQ promotes wellness, collaboration, and connections to nature for the neighborhood and the 25,000 employees who will occupy the Arlington headquarters by 2025. Many of our Seattle office towers are certified LEED Gold, incorporating holistic sustainability measures for energy and water conservation, improved indoor environmental quality, and healthy material selection. On the other side of the world, our offices in Munich are certified Gold for environmental design by the German Sustainable Building Council based on their energy-efficient interiors and use of sustainable building materials.

Learn more about our commitment to sustainable buildings.
How is Amazon using Renewable Energy to account for energy consumed by Amazon Devices?
In 2020, Amazon announced an ambitious goal to procure new renewable energy equal to the amount of energy consumed by all Amazon devices, starting with Echo devices. To understand what this goal should encompass, we model and measure the energy consumed by our devices in different types of use, then project their total average global annual electricity consumption. We have contracted the first new wind and solar farms to support this goal, which are currently under construction and are expected to begin operating in 2022-2023. Until then, we are investing in renewable energy certificates that match the quantity of electricity used by every customer’s Echo device, based on the amount of energy we expect those new projects to generate.

Learn more about Amazon’s commitment to renewable energy.
How is Amazon working to decarbonize buildings?
Amazon is working to reduce the carbon emissions associated with our buildings, from the carbon embodied in construction materials, to the operational emissions from powering our activities. In 2020, we launched an in-depth study of our operations facilities to examine the energy intensity of our buildings and identify ways to reduce carbon through energy efficiency enhancements, new technologies, and sustainable building materials. We have started applying these insights across building types and are incorporating best practices into future building development plans.

In 2020, Amazon secured the naming rights to Climate Pledge Arena, slated to become the first net-zero carbon certified arena in the world. The arena will feature all-electric operations systems powered by 100% renewable electricity from on-site solar panels and off-site renewable energy projects. Events at the arena will be made fully net-zero carbon by investing in forestry projects that sequester any remaining carbon emissions from the arena’s operations through nature-based solutions.

Plans for our second headquarters in Arlington, Virginia, feature a range of carbon reduction solutions and energy efficiency enhancements, including highly efficient building systems, high-efficiency lighting with advanced controls, and a high-performing building envelope that facilitates climate control. All-electric central heating and cooling systems will eliminate on-site combustion for heating and domestic hot water, and a nearby solar farm will power the campus with 100% renewable energy. The buildings will incorporate locally sourced materials, to reduce the carbon impact of material transportation, and low-carbon materials, including low-carbon concrete supplemented with Carbon Cure technology, a Climate Pledge Fund investment.

We are also working to reduce the embodied carbon of our new data centers. Embodied carbon is the carbon emitted during the extraction, manufacturing, and transportation of materials to the data center construction site. It is dispersed in the atmosphere before the data center is operational. By reducing the cement content in our concrete and sourcing steel from electric arc furnace mills, we can reduce the embodied carbon in the structure of our data centers by at least 20%. These requirements are already included in projects in Dublin, Singapore, and San Francisco, and will be standard in our AWS-operated data centers by the end of 2021.

Learn more about our commitment to sustainable buildings.
Circular Economy
What is Amazon doing to minimize waste and increase recycling?
Amazon is minimizing waste, increasing recycling, and providing options for our customers to reuse, repair, and recycle their products. We are working to send less material to the landfill and more back into the circular economy loop. Amazon is committed to reducing our environmental footprint through recycling initiatives in our own operations and partnerships that support the development of recycling infrastructure across the industry.

In 2020, we committed to make Amazon device packaging 100% curbside recyclable by 2023. We are also working to source 100% of the wood fiber in our packaging from responsibly managed forests or recycled sources. We made significant progress toward these goals in 2020, eliminating more than 27 million plastic bags from our device packaging and sourcing more than 97% of the wood fiber packaging for all new Echo and Fire TV devices launched in 2020 from responsibly managed forests or recycled sources.

In 2020, we began converting plastic film into poly bags made of 100% recycled material, which are used for package-free returns at Amazon drop-off locations in the U.S. As of June 2021, on-site plastic film recycling is available at more than 168 Amazon sites across North America and Europe. Additionally, we’re reducing the operational waste associated with customer fulfillment in facilities across the globe. Corrugated board is the most common material that flows through our operations, and we work with third-party recycling haulers to remove corrugated board from our facilities for off-site recycling.

Learn more about Amazon’s recycling efforts.
What is Amazon doing to reduce electronic waste? Does the company offer a product takeback program?
Amazon makes it easy for customers to retire their products without sending them into the waste stream. Through Amazon Trade-In, customers in the U.S., the UK, and Germany can trade in thousands of eligible items, including Amazon devices, cell phones, video games and consoles, and more in exchange for an Amazon.com Gift Card. Even non-functional Amazon devices are eligible for trade-in and will be recycled. Some trade-ins may be eligible for a promotional credit off of a new qualifying Amazon device.

Amazon also encourages customers to fix items before replacing or disposing of them. We offer free Product Support in seven global geographies, providing customers with technical assistance, replacement parts, and repair services for select items, helping them maximize the life of the things they already own.

For electronic equipment that cannot be repaired or traded in, customers can recycle their items free of charge through programs like Amazon Device Recycling in the U.S. and Recycle with Amazon in Europe. These programs route electronic equipment to recycling partners who dismantle the items and ensure that they are recycled and re-purposed into new products. We also partner with companies to make it easier for customers to recycle old electronics and clothing through door-to-door pick-up services like Retrievr.

In some areas, the disposal of rechargeable batteries and certain electronic devices is regulated. Always dispose of Amazon devices, accessories, and batteries in accordance with your local laws and regulations.

Information on poundage recycled in the Commonwealth of Virginia is reported annually at this website.

For more information on recycling electrical or electronic equipment in Europe and the EU Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) Directive, please visit this page.

Information for Customers Living in India is available at Recycling Kindle Products in India.

Learn more about these programs through Amazon Second Chance.
What is Amazon doing to enable the resale of returned products?
Amazon gives customers several options to purchase pre-owned and refurbished items. By shopping refurbished products, customers can extend the life of products and reduce waste. Amazon Renewed offers like-new refurbished products, such as electronics, home appliances, and more. All products are professionally inspected and tested to work and look like new, and are backed by the Amazon Renewed Guarantee. Amazon Warehouse offers refurbished and returned products, which undergo a rigorous 20-point inspection process before being sold at a discount. Pre-owned Amazon Devices provides customers with access to fully functional pre-owned products that have been screened and tested by Amazon. All of these programs reduce waste and encourage reuse by ensuring that valuable products can go back into the hands of customers rather than being sent to landfills.

Learn more through Amazon Second Chance.
How can Amazon customers repair, return, or recycle Amazon products and packaging?
Amazon makes it easy for customers to retire their products without sending them into the waste stream. Amazon Second Chance is a central hub that helps customers eliminate waste and give products and packaging a second life. It is available across the globe with offerings in the U.S., Canada, the UK, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain, and we recently expanded into Sweden and Japan as well.

Through Amazon Trade-In, customers in the U.S., the UK, and Germany can trade in thousands of eligible items, including Amazon devices, cell phones, video games and consoles, and more in exchange for an Amazon.com Gift Card. Even non-functional Amazon devices are eligible for trade-in and will be recycled. Some trade-ins may be eligible for a promotional credit off of a new qualifying Amazon device. Amazon also encourages customers to fix items before replacing or disposing of them.

We offer free Product Support in seven global geographies, providing customers with technical assistance, replacement parts, and repair services for select items, helping them maximize the life of the things they already own. For electronic equipment that cannot be repaired or traded in, customers can recycle their items free of charge through programs like Amazon Device Recycling in the U.S. and Recycle with Amazon in Europe. These programs route electronic equipment to recycling partners who dismantle the items and ensure that they are recycled and re-purposed into new products. We also partner with companies to make it easier for customers to recycle old electronics and clothing through door-to-door pick-up services like Retrievr.

Learn more about these programs through Amazon Second Chance.
What is Amazon doing to minimize food waste?
Amazon contributed more than 25 million products to our global charity partners in 2020. Together with Whole Foods Market, we donated an additional 70 million meals and 30 million ounces of hand sanitizer to Feeding America, a U.S. network of food banks, pantries, soup kitchens, shelters, and other community-based agencies. In 2020, Whole Foods Market launched a food redistribution program called Nourishing Our Neighborhoods that provided 21 refrigerated vans to community-based food rescue organizations. Each of these vans provides recipient organizations with 20,000 pounds of rescued food from Whole Foods Market and surrounding grocers and retailers every week. This effort will provide more than 180 million meals over the next 10 years to families in need across the U.S. and Canada.

At Amazon, we are committed to reducing food loss and waste within our U.S. operations by 50% by 2030. We joined the Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions group, an effort jointly administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Agriculture. As part of our commitment, we will be developing food waste reporting, generating source reduction metrics, sharing food waste reduction programs and progress on our website, building new food disposition paths, and expanding existing donation programs.

Learn more about product donations.
Does Amazon have programs in place to reduce packaging waste?
At Amazon, designing packaging starts with the customer and works backwards. In 2008, Amazon introduced Frustration-Free Packaging (FFP) to help manufacturers reduce packaging waste and develop sustainable alternatives for online fulfillment. Our FFP programs incentivize manufacturers to package their products in easy-to-open packaging that is 100% recyclable and ready to ship to customers without additional Amazon boxes. As of June 2021, we have reduced the weight of outbound packaging by over 36% and eliminated more than 1 million tons of packaging material since 2015—the equivalent of 2 billion shipping boxes.

To optimize packaging selections at Amazon’s scale, we use machine learning algorithms to arrive at the best possible packaging choices for deliveries. That means identifying which products don’t need additional packaging, and which smaller products are suitable for flexible packaging, such as padded mailers and bags, which are up to 75% lighter than similar-sized boxes. Flexible packaging conforms around products, reducing the need for additional packing materials, and takes up 40% less space than a box during shipping. In cases where the protection of a box is needed, machine learning helps us continuously optimize box choices to fit our ever-changing catalog of products and redesign boxes to use less material. When packaging weighs less and is the right size to protect customer orders, we can pack more orders into each delivery, resulting in fewer trips and less fuel burned.

Learn more about how we reduce packaging waste.
Does Amazon extend improvements and innovations in sustainable packaging to its vendors and suppliers?
To certify products under our Frustration-Free Packaging (FFP) certification tiers, Amazon identifies specific steps that manufacturers can take to improve their packaging and ensure products are protected all the way to the customer’s doorstep. We partnered with the International Safe Transit Association to craft the standards behind our FFP programs and have developed a network of structural packaging designers, testing services, and materials suppliers to support manufacturers throughout the certification process. As of June 2021, more than 2 million products qualify under our FFP programs.

Amazon also collaborates directly with top brands and selling partners to transform their packaging for FFP certification. We teamed up with Procter & Gamble to invent the Tide Eco-Box, a concentrated version of Tide’s traditional laundry detergent compressed into a fully recyclable, shipping-safe package. The Eco-Box is produced using 60% less plastic and 30% less water than a conventional plastic jug, and requires no additional packing materials to ship. Thousands of other brands have made similar packaging improvements by participating in Amazon’s FFP programs. Specific case studies are available on our Packaging Website.

Learn more about Amazon’s sustainable packaging initiatives.
How is Amazon working to improve packaging standards across the industry?
We help lead the industry on waste reduction and sustainable packaging through our development of two testing standards with the International Safe Transit Association. These test methods simulate the journey of a package through the fulfillment process to ensure that products are designed to reduce damage while using the least of amount of packaging possible. These test methods are the backbone of our certification process and are used by vendors, package designers, suppliers, and testing labs around the world.

Learn more about Amazon’s sustainable packaging initiatives.
How does Amazon ensure that products that ship without an Amazon package over them are going to arrive at my home undamaged?
Items that ship without additional Amazon packaging have been certified as part of our Frustration-Free Packaging program. These items have been rigorously tested to ensure that they perform well during shipping and delivery to the customer. No packaging is foolproof, but we see strong shipping performance from products with certified and well-designed packaging.

Learn more about Amazon’s Frustration-Free Packaging programs.
Is Amazon working on new packaging technologies?
Yes. In 2019, we launched our innovative paper padded mailer, which offers the same recyclability as our corrugated boxes while taking up less space in transit and in the recycling bin. The paper padded mailer is made of four layers of paper and a water-based cushioning material, which was designed to easily separate in the same way that print inks and other paper coatings are removed during the paper recycling process. We are expanding our use of paper padded mailers across North America to replace the use of mixed paper and plastic mailers by the end of 2022.

We are also increasing our use of flexible paper-based mailers across Europe, allowing us to significantly reduce the use of plastic in packaging materials by the end of 2021. In India, Amazon eliminated single-use, thin film plastics in packaging in 2020 by replacing plastic materials like bubble wrap and air pillows with paper cushions and introducing plastic-free, biodegradable tape. To reduce the need for packaging at all, we have developed a model for packaging-free shipping across more than 100 Indian cities, delivering orders in their original packaging using protective containers that delivery drivers can reuse.

Meanwhile, we are improving the composition of our plastic packaging solutions to use less material and incorporate more recycled content. We are increasing the recycled content of our plastic film bags from 25% to 50% in 2021, and from 15% to over 40% for our plastic padded bags. Together, these improvements are expected to eliminate more than 25,000 metric tons of new plastic each year.

Read the full story.
Product Sustainability
What is Amazon doing to develop sustainable products?
We are committed to embedding sustainability into Amazon-branded products as a fundamental standard across our supply chain. While there is no industry-wide definition of a sustainable product, one of the ways Amazon sets a high bar for our branded products is through certifications. We partner with reputable external certifiers and use our own internal Compact by Design certification to certify products that qualify as Climate Pledge Friendly. We also engage with leading organizations and industry collaboratives to drive sustainability improvements, and incorporate new insights into our approach as we continue to learn.

Learn more about Amazon’s commitment to sustainable products.
What is Amazon doing to make our devices more sustainable?
Customers want to be sure that the products they buy align with their values and needs. We are committed to embedding sustainability into Amazon-branded products as a fundamental standard across our supply chain. While there is no industry-wide definition of a sustainable product, one of the ways Amazon sets a high bar for our branded products is through certifications. We partner with reputable external certifiers and use our own internal Compact by Design certification to certify products that qualify as Climate Pledge Friendly. We also engage with leading organizations and industry collaboratives to drive sustainability improvements, and incorporate new insights into our approach as we continue to learn.

Learn more about devices and sustainability.
What is Amazon doing to make device packaging more sustainable?
In 2020, we committed to make Amazon device packaging 100% curbside recyclable by 2023. We are also working to source 100% of the wood fiber in our packaging from responsibly managed forests or recycled sources. We made significant progress toward these goals in 2020, eliminating more than 27 million plastic bags from our device packaging and sourcing more than 97% of the wood fiber packaging for all new Echo and Fire TV devices launched in 2020 from responsibly managed forests or recycled sources.

Learn more about devices and sustainability.
What is the recycled materials breakdown of the new devices Amazon announced in September 2020?
We are incorporating recycled plastics, fabrics, and metals into many new Amazon devices. For the devices launched in September 2020, using recycled materials means we will divert the equivalent of over 800 garbage trucks full of fabrics, plastics, and aluminum from landfills over these devices’ lifetimes. These new devices include 100% post-consumer recycled fabric, 100% recycled die-cast aluminum, and 30-50% post-consumer recycled plastics. Learn more about devices and sustainability.
How is Amazon addressing the electricity used by our devices?
We have developed features like Low Power Mode to reduce the energy devices consume during periods of inactivity over their lifetime. In 2020, we added Low Power Mode to the latest models of Echo and Fire TV devices and are rolling out free over-the-air updates to bring Low Power Mode to older models of devices already in customers’ homes.

In 2020, Amazon announced an ambitious goal to procure new renewable energy equal to the amount of energy consumed by all Amazon devices, starting with Echo devices. To understand what this goal should encompass, we model and measure the energy consumed by our devices in different types of use, then project their total average global annual electricity consumption. We have contracted the first new wind and solar farms to support this goal, which are currently under construction and are expected to begin operating in 2022-2023. Until then, we are investing in renewable energy certificates that match the quantity of electricity used by every customer’s Echo device, based on the amount of energy we expect those new projects to generate.

Learn more about devices and sustainability.
What can Alexa do to help customers conserve energy?
We are making it easier for customers to manage their home energy use with the Alexa energy dashboard, available in the U.S. The dashboard works with compatible smart lights, plugs, switches, water heaters, thermostats, televisions, and Echo devices, allowing customers to easily track the energy used by these devices. Customers can also enable Alexa to help them conserve energy. For example, if Alexa has a hunch that a customer is away and forgot to turn off a light, Alexa can automatically turn it off, helping customers save energy and reduce carbon emissions.

Learn more about devices and sustainability.
How does Amazon help customers find more sustainable products?
As part of our mission to be Earth’s most customer-centric company, we are working to give our customers access to more sustainable products, from thousands of Amazon-branded products we develop and manufacture, to millions of retail and third-party items sold in Amazon’s store.

In 2020, Amazon launched Climate Pledge Friendly, a new program that uses sustainability certifications to highlight products that support our commitment to help preserve the natural world. Customers in the U.S., the UK, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain will see the Climate Pledge Friendly label when shopping in Amazon’s online store, signifying that one or more sustainability certifications support these products. Climate Pledge Friendly products are clearly labeled in shopping results and have additional sustainability information on their product pages. As of June 2021, customers can shop for more than 75,000 Climate Pledge Friendly products in categories ranging from health and household items, to office products and electronics. To expand our sustainable shopping selection, we are inviting brands to participate in Climate Pledge Friendly by securing certifications for products sold in Amazon’s store that improve at least one aspect of sustainability.

Learn more about Amazon’s commitment to sustainable product development.
The Cloud
Does AWS have goals or programs to reduce its use of non-renewable resources?
Yes. In line with Amazon’s company-wide commitment to renewable energy, AWS is focused on efficiency and continuous innovation across our global infrastructure as we continue on our path to powering our operations with 100% renewable energy by 2025.

Learn more about AWS and sustainability.
What is AWS’s policy on renewable energy?
Increasing the deployment of renewable energy resources is valuable for the planet, good for business, and important for our customers. As part of our sustainability efforts, Amazon advocates in support of public policy that advances access to and the expansion of clean energy.

Learn more about AWS and sustainability.
Does AWS have programs to improve its energy efficiency?
Yes. AWS has always been focused on improving efficiency in every aspect of our infrastructure. From the highly available infrastructure that powers our servers, to techniques we use to cool our data centers, and the innovative server designs that deliver AWS services to our customers—energy efficiency is a primary goal of our global infrastructure. Through our scale and focus on innovation, we can achieve higher resource utilization and energy efficiency than is possible for the typical on-premises data center, and we are continuously working on ways to do more. In fact, 451 Research found that AWS’s infrastructure was 3.6 times more energy efficient than the median of surveyed enterprise data centers, with more than two thirds of this advantage due to a more energy efficient server population and higher server utilization.

For example, we have improved power efficiency and availability by removing the central Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) from our data center design and integrating small battery packs and custom power supplies into our racks. These changes combined reduce energy conversion loss by about 35%.

AWS also continues to increase the efficiency of the custom hardware and software we design to deliver AWS services. Graviton2 is AWS’s most power-efficient processor, providing better performance per watt than any other processor we currently use. With the world’s increasing need for compute and other IT infrastructure, continually innovating at the chip level is critical to ensuring we can sustainably power the workloads of the future.

Learn more about the carbon reduction opportunity of moving to Amazon Web Services in a 451 Research report.
What policies and practices does AWS have in place to ensure responsible management of used electronic equipment?
AWS is committed to responsible management of used electronic equipment and reducing waste across our AWS Regions. We have a network of experienced vendors that manage our used equipment and follow local, national, and regional requirements. AWS directs our vendors to prioritize reuse of generic parts and maximize recycling of all components that cannot be reused. Our vendors provide data on the full management cycle of our used equipment, allowing us to verify reuse and recycling and ensuring that our waste is responsibly managed to its final endpoint.
How does AWS track and reduce water usage in its data centers?
AWS has multiple initiatives underway to use water more efficiently and use less potable (drinking) water to cool our data centers. AWS develops our water-use strategy by evaluating climate patterns for each AWS Region, local water management and availability, and the opportunity to conserve drinking water sources. Taking a holistic approach, we assess both the water and energy usage of each potential cooling solution to select the most efficient method.

When possible, AWS incorporates direct evaporative technology to cool our data centers, reducing energy and water consumption. To help conserve local drinking water sources, AWS is expanding our use of non-potable water for cooling purposes. In Northern Virginia, AWS was the first data center operator to be approved to use recycled water with direct evaporative cooling technology. AWS is implementing on-site modular water treatment systems in multiple regions. As water is cycled through evaporative cooling units, minerals build up as water evaporates, eventually reaching a level of concentration that requires replacement with fresh water. In each infrastructure region where we use water for cooling, AWS has developed water efficiency metrics to determine and monitor optimal water use for each AWS Region, and we employ a data-driven approach to select the most effective water reduction technologies. Water metrics from each AWS Region help us evaluate technologies and understand their long-term impacts on our water usage, in order to increase efficiency as our infrastructure grows and we expand to new regions.

Learn more about our efforts to reduce water used for cooling in AWS data centers.
How does AWS help customers meet their sustainability goals?
AWS focuses on energy efficiency and continuous innovation in our data centers. AWS is committed to achieving 100% renewable energy usage for our global infrastructure by 2025. AWS customers also use AWS services to make faster progress on their own sustainability goals. In addition to our analytics, IoT, and Machine Learning services, AWS hosts geospatial and environmental datasets (Earth on AWS), and AWS Cloud Credits for Research are available to support research using this earth observation data on AWS.

Addressing climate change requires innovation across the world, across industries, and across startups and multi-national corporations. From distributed energy and storage solutions, to efficiency and optimization software—clean technology investment and innovation is surging. To help foster the rapid growth of clean tech innovations, AWS launched the AWS Clean Energy Accelerator in 2021. The program seeks to help clean energy startups accelerate their impact, access additional resources, and expand their reach. The AWS Clean Energy Accelerator was developed in collaboration with Freshwater Advisors, a U.S.-based innovation consultancy and venture catalyst. Read more about the AWS Clean Energy Accelerator.

Learn more about AWS and sustainability.
What is Amazon’s Sustainability Data Initiative?
The Amazon Sustainability Data Initiative (ASDI) seeks to accelerate sustainability research and innovation by minimizing the cost and time required to acquire and analyze large sustainability datasets. ASDI works with scientific organizations to identify, host, and deploy key datasets on the AWS Cloud, including weather observations, weather forecasts, climate projection data, satellite imagery, hydrological data, air quality data, and ocean forecast data. Our approach allows sustainability researchers to analyze massive amounts of data in mere minutes, regardless of where they are in the world or how much local storage space or computing capacity they can access. These datasets are publicly available to anyone. In addition, ASDI provides cloud grants to those interested in exploring the use of AWS’ technology and scalable infrastructure to solve big, long-term sustainability challenges with this data.

Learn more about the Amazon Sustainability Data Initiative.
How does AWS factor environmental considerations into data center site selection?
AWS carefully chooses our data center locations to mitigate environmental risk, such as flooding, extreme weather, and seismic activity. From site selection and construction to operations and sustainability, learn more about how we factor environmental considerations into AWS operations.
Employees
How are Amazon employees engaged in sustainability efforts?
More than 7,500 Amazonians have joined together as Sustainability Ambassadors—a grassroots organization of sustainability-minded employees working to expand the efforts of our global teams that manage Amazon’s environmental and social impacts. Since launching in 2017, the Sustainability Ambassadors program has transformed into a collaborative community of more than 450 chapters across the world, and continues to grow. Ambassadors raise awareness of sustainability as a practice for all Amazonians by delivering environmental education through on-site and virtual events. They lead projects and develop initiatives on Amazon campuses and across communities to help fellow Amazonians reduce their environmental impact at home or at work. The program also provides a community for sharing best practices among teams in different settings and locations.

Learn more about the Sustainability Ambassadors program.
What diversity and inclusion training programs does Amazon offer employees?
Amazon has 13 employee-led affinity groups, comprised of more than 90,000 employees in hundreds of chapters globally who passionately and positively impact our company. Each affinity group has executive sponsors who support them in engaging at every level of the company. Groups include Amazon People with Disabilities; Amazon Women in Engineering; Asians@Amazon; Black Employee Network; Body Positive Peers; Families@Amazon; Glamazon (for LGBTQIA+ employees and allies); Indigenous@Amazon; Latinos@Amazon; Mental Health and Well-Being; Warriors@Amazon; Women@Amazon; and Women in Finance Initiative. We engage and consult their leaders and seek their ideas to improve our inclusion efforts internally and externally. We are proud that our efforts have received recognition from the Human Rights Campaign’s Corporate Equality Index; the NAACP Equity, Inclusion, and Empowerment Index; and the Disability Equality Index.

Building on our Leadership Principle of Learn and Be Curious, we organize conferences every year where employees can learn and exchange their ideas and experiences. Several of these conferences focused specifically on diversity issues.

  • Represent the Future is a career enrichment summit centered around uplifting Black, Latinx, and Native American communities. This event is open to participants from any organization around the world to learn more about Amazon’s customer-obsessed culture of diversity and inclusion that inspires everything we do. Recruiters and hiring managers from across Amazon share insights about Amazon’s 14 Leadership Principles, current job opportunities, and our application and interview process.
  • Conversations on Race and Ethnicity (CORE+) is a global brand of internal experiences that focuses on deepening Amazon employees’ understanding of systemic barriers through conversations on topics related to intersectional identities, including race, ethnicity, and gender, with additional focus on nationality, ability, sexual orientation, military status, religion, age, and language.
  • Amazon Global Diversity Summit is a professional development experience for Amazon’s diversity, equity, and inclusion global practitioners. This event focuses on industry-leading research, ideas, and mechanisms related to race, ethnicity, and social justice and highlights best practices pioneered by various business units.
  • Global Accessibility Awareness Month is recognized each May at Amazon. Around the world, the month is full of events, technical talks, experiential trainings, podcasts, and workshops that showcase accessibility best practices. Employees take time throughout the month to learn about accessibility, even if it is not a part of their day-to-day work.
  • AmazeWIT is a conference we host in India, bringing together women technologists, including Amazon’s technical leaders and external guests. The day-long event focuses on technology deep dives (including voice technology, machine learning, Fire OS, and others) and leadership discussions with senior Amazonians and peer companies.

Learn more about diversity, equity, and inclusion at Amazon.
Does Amazon report progress on diversity and inclusion?
Representation matters. We track the representation of women and underrepresented communities because we know that diversity helps us build better teams that obsess over and better represent our global customer base. We have made year-over-year progress, and we will continue to strive for better representation across our company.

See our workforce data.
What is Amazon doing to promote diversity?
At Amazon, we value diversity, equity, and inclusion. We believe these values are good for business and, more fundamentally, are simply right. Amazon customers have many intersecting identities, and we serve them better with a diverse and inclusive workforce. Our diverse perspectives help us push each other to think bigger, and differently, about the products and services we build for our customers and the day-to-day nature of our workplace.

We are committed to increasing representation of employees from diverse backgrounds at every level of our organization. We know that diverse leaders attract and retain diverse teams, so we focus our efforts on hiring, retention, growth, and development, including promotion of our employees. In 2020, we set and met goals to double the representation of Black directors and vice presidents, launch inclusion training for all Amazonians, and remove racially insensitive language in our tech documentation. Building on last year’s work, in 2021, we set company-wide goals for diversity, equity, and inclusion. We set goals for our vice president team to inspect any statistically significant demographic differences in 2021 first-quarter performance ratings and, on a monthly basis, any statistically significant demographic differences in attrition and low performance actions to identify root causes and, as necessary, implement action plans.

Amazon is actively involved in diversity initiatives that support our employees, our communities, and our customers. For example, to find the best talent for technical and non-technical roles, we actively partner with organizations and academic institutions that reach underrepresented communities. In addition, our 13 affinity groups, often called employee resource groups, bring Amazonians together across businesses and locations around the world.

Learn more about diversity and inclusion at Amazon.
How is Amazon supporting military veterans?
As of June 2021, Amazon employed more than 40,000 veterans and military spouses across the U.S., surpassing the Joining Forces Pledge we made in 2016 to hire 25,000 veterans and military spouses over the next five years, and to train 10,000 active duty service members, veterans, and military spouses. Amazon provides a Military Leave of Absence to all eligible serving employees, including differential pay, continued healthcare coverage, and job protection. Amazon military employees across the U.S. have served more than 20,000 days in the Reserves and National Guard in 2020, from serving as aircraft technicians transporting COVID-19 patients, to assembling essential COVID-19 test kits.

Learn more about opportunities for veterans at Amazon.
Has Amazon established programs to develop talented individuals of diverse backgrounds for future opportunities within the company or in the industry?
We are invested in building out the next generation of diverse leaders. As part of our $50 million investment in computer science and STEM education, our Amazon Future Engineer program inspires, educates, and prepares children and young adults from underrepresented and underserved communities to pursue computer science. In 2021, we set a goal to reach 1.6 million underrepresented students globally through Amazon Future Engineer with real world-inspired virtual and hands-on computer science project learning. We actively partner with organizations and academic institutions that reach underrepresented communities like Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), women’s colleges, and tribal colleges. This includes hosting hiring fairs in underrepresented communities around the world and committing to the HBCU Partnership Challenge to support greater engagement between private companies and HBCUs.

We are also empowering women to lead in the technology industry. AWS has partnered with Girls in Tech, a global nonprofit committed to eliminating the gender gap in an industry where only 26% of computer scientists are women. Girls in Tech is among the organizations pushing hardest to provide women with access to jobs in technology through education, professional development, and community-building experiences. To enhance these efforts, AWS supports the Girls in Tech annual conference, its Digital Career Fair, a virtual hackathon focused on creating real-world technical solutions powered by women, and AMPLIFY, a startup pitch competition that helps entrepreneurs with funding and mentorship.
Does Amazon have policies in place that address employment equity and discrimination?
As noted in our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Amazon.com provides equal opportunity in all aspects of employment and will not tolerate any illegal discrimination or harassment of any kind. For more information, visit Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Does Amazon provide training about social and ethical requirements to its employees?
As noted in our Supply Chain Standards, Amazon employees who manage our manufacturing supply chain receive training on our Supplier Code and audit requirements. Amazon also has a training program for our manufacturers on our Supplier Code and supply chain standards. Amazon employees are subject to internal accountability standards, which include disciplinary measures up to and including termination, for failing to follow Amazon requirements regarding our audits.

As noted in our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, the Legal Department will designate certain employees who, based on their level of responsibility or the nature of their work, will be required to certify periodically that they have read, understand and complied with the Code of Conduct. For more information, visit Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Does Amazon have policies in place that address harassment and violence?
In performing their job duties, Amazon employees should always act lawfully, ethically, and in the best interests of Amazon. The Code of Business Conduct and Ethics (Code of Conduct) sets out basic guiding principles for all employees. As noted in our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, Amazon provides equal opportunity in all aspects of employment and will not tolerate any illegal discrimination or harassment of any kind. Violence and threatening behavior are not permitted. Employees must report to work in a condition to perform their duties, free from the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. For more information, visit Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Supply Chain
Does Amazon have a Supplier Code of Conduct?
Yes. Amazon is strongly committed to conducting our business in a lawful and ethical manner, including engaging with suppliers who respect human rights, provide safe and inclusive workplaces, and promote a sustainable future. We set a high bar for ourselves and our suppliers. Our Supply Chain Standards detail the requirements and expectations for our suppliers, their supply chains, and selling partners who list products in our stores. They are grounded in principles of inclusivity, continuous improvement, and supply chain accountability. We engage with suppliers that are committed to these same principles; suppliers are subject to these standards as a condition of doing business with us.

Our standards reflect that we are committed to respecting and supporting the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Core Conventions of the ILO, and the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. To ensure our policies and programs incorporate these internationally recognized human rights standards, we conduct formal benchmarking with industry peers and multi-stakeholder organizations to continually improve our program. At least every three years in line with industry best practices, we review our Supply Chain Standards against policies developed by industry associations (such as the Responsible Business Alliance and the Consumer Goods Forum) and in consultation with external stakeholders, including Nest, Business for Social Responsibility, Impactt Limited, and Verité.

Download and read Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards.
Does Amazon have a chemicals policy?
Yes. Part of our commitment to quality is avoiding chemicals of concern in our products that can affect human health and/or the environment. We define chemicals of concern as those chemicals that:
(1) Meet the criteria for classification as a carcinogen, mutagen, or reproductive or other systemic toxicant; or
(2) Are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic.

We use leading science and customer feedback to prioritize which chemicals of concern to focus on based on product type, customer concerns, and the availability of safer alternatives. Learn more about the chemicals we seek to avoid in our Restricted Substance List and our Food Contact Materials Restricted Substance List.
What is Amazon doing to promote fair labor practices in its supply chain, including beyond first tier suppliers?
Amazon is strongly committed to conducting our business in a lawful and ethical manner, including engaging with suppliers who respect human rights, provide safe and inclusive workplaces, and promote a sustainable future. We require suppliers in our manufacturing supply chain and those that support Amazon’s operations to comply with our Supply Chain Standards. In order to ensure these standards are cascaded throughout our supply chain, Amazon also expects our suppliers to hold their suppliers and subcontractors to the standards and practices covered by our Supply Chain Standards. Our products must be manufactured and services provided in a manner that meets or exceeds the expectations of Amazon and our customers as reflected in our Supply Chain Standards.

We assess our suppliers of Amazon-branded products across four main categories: 1) Labor, 2) Health and Safety, 3) Environment, and 4) Ethics. These categories are divided into subcategories, such as non-discrimination, emergency preparedness, hazardous substances, and transparency. Findings within each subcategory are flagged as High, Medium, or Low depending on the level of severity.

In 2020, we continued to map deeper tiers of our Amazon-branded product supply chains in order to identify the most salient and material risks. Commodity supply chains are complicated and fragmented, and improved visibility into raw material supply chains enables businesses to identify human rights and labor rights violations and hold suppliers accountable.

Download and read Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards.
Does Amazon have any key performance indicators or goals related to its social responsibility policies?
Yes. We report the results of audits and assessments to senior leadership on a regular basis. Amazon’s core businesses have each taken on social responsibility goals at an executive leadership level; performance against these goals is reported by the business on a quarterly basis.
How does Amazon assess social and ethical risks in its supply chain?
We routinely evaluate our supply chain to understand the highest risks to workers and prioritize our efforts. To do this, we engage key internal and external stakeholders, analyze our risks using international risk indices such as the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators, run worker surveys, and conduct assessments that include worker interviews, management interviews, document review, and on-site visits. We regularly consult industry experts to review our approach to risk assessment against globally recognized international standards and industry best practices.

We assess our suppliers of Amazon-branded products across four main categories: 1) Labor, 2) Health and Safety, 3) Environment, and 4) Ethics. These categories are divided into subcategories, such as non-discrimination, emergency preparedness, hazardous substances, and transparency. Findings within each subcategory are flagged as High, Medium, or Low depending on the level of severity.

Key stages of supplier assessment and issue remediation:

  • Supplier submits an Amazon approved audit of facility
  • If issues are identified, Amazon will issue a request for a Corrective Action Plan
  • Remediation of identified issues is tracked through follow-on verification audits
  • Once in production, supplier is audited on a regular, ongoing basis
  • If a supplier refuses to remediate an issue, Amazon may choose to terminate the relationship

Learn more about Amazon’s key commitments across our supply chain.
Does Amazon commit to international human rights standards?
Yes. Our Supply Chain Standards reflect that we are committed to respecting and supporting the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Core Conventions of the ILO, and the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. To ensure our policies and programs incorporate these internationally recognized human rights standards, we conduct formal benchmarking with industry peers and multi-stakeholder organizations to continually improve our program. At least every three years in line with industry best practices, we review our Supply Chain Standards against policies developed by industry associations (such as the Responsible Business Alliance and the Consumer Goods Forum) and in consultation with external stakeholders, including Nest, Business for Social Responsibility, Impactt Limited, and Verité.

Read Amazon’s Global Human Rights Principles.
How does Amazon monitor, review, and assure the environmental and social performance of its suppliers?
Our suppliers must comply with all applicable environmental laws. Amazon also encourages our suppliers to implement systems that are designed to minimize the impact on the environment by the supply chain system, the production process, and the products themselves. We routinely evaluate our supply chain to understand the highest risks to workers and prioritize our efforts. To do this, we engage key internal and external stakeholders, analyze our risks using international risk indices such as the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators, run worker surveys, and conduct assessments that include worker interviews, management interviews, document review, and on-site visits. We regularly consult industry experts to review our approach to risk assessment against globally recognized international standards and industry best practices.

Our Responsible Sourcing Program focuses on suppliers of Amazon-branded products, consisting of Amazon Private Brands, Amazon devices, and a curated selection of brands exclusively sold in Amazon’s store. Through this program, we engage in robust supplier due diligence, prioritizing mechanisms that drive continuous improvement. We are committed to working with our suppliers to remedy issues and establish systems to prevent future issues. We expect our suppliers to consistently monitor and enforce our standards in their own operations and supply chain as well as make improvements to meet or exceed our expectations. We use independent auditors to verify supplier compliance with our Supply Chain Standards though regular on-site inspections and confidential worker interviews.

Download and read Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards.
How does Amazon support continuous improvement in its supply chain?
We train our suppliers on the standards and conduct required by our Supplier Chain Standards to clarify our expectations and to build their capacity to deliver on these expectations. Upon completion of an assessment, if there are any issues, suppliers must provide a detailed corrective action plan for each issue identified. Amazon tracks remediation closely and conducts follow-up assessments for significant issues. Between audits, Amazon employees meet with supplier managers to discuss open issues and remediation progress.

We routinely evaluate our supply chain to understand the highest risks to workers and prioritize our efforts. To do this, we engage key internal and external stakeholders, analyze our risks using international risk indices such as the World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators, run worker surveys, and conduct assessments that include worker interviews, management interviews, document review, and on-site visits. We regularly consult industry experts to review our approach to risk assessment against globally recognized international standards and industry best practices.

We offer on-site and remote training to support continuous improvement. Suppliers are also encouraged to participate in external training programs, such as industry association tutorials, to learn how to recognize and prevent forced labor, how to comply with wage and working hour requirements, and how to implement management systems.

Download and read Amazon’s Supplier Manual.
How does Amazon assess the environmental sustainability management competency of suppliers?
Our Supply Chain Standards require suppliers to adopt a management system to ensure compliance with applicable laws and the Supplier Code and to facilitate continual improvement. Suppliers must establish a process to identify the environmental, health, safety, and ethical risks associated with their operational and labor practices. In addition, management must develop appropriate processes to control identified risks and ensure regulatory compliance.

Our aim is to ensure that the manufacturing of our products does not cause unnecessary environmental harm. We are a member of the Sustainable Apparel Coalition (Coalition), an industry-wide group of leading apparel and footwear brands, retailers, manufacturers, non-governmental organizations, academic experts, and government organizations working to reduce the environmental and social impacts of apparel products around the world. We encourage our Amazon-branded suppliers to evaluate their practices using the Coalition’s Higg Index, a tool to help manufacturers measure the social and environmental performance of their facilities. We are committed to driving adoption of this assessment and helping our suppliers understand their environmental impacts. In 2021, Amazon established a goal to collect environmental performance data from 200 suppliers by the end of the year.

Download and read Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards.
What is Amazon’s approach to child labor?
Amazon does not tolerate the use of child labor, forced labor, or human trafficking in any form in our operations or value chain. We have detailed the components of this commitment to combating human trafficking (also referred to as modern slavery) in our annual Modern Slavery Statement, our Supply Chain Standards, and our Global Human Rights Principles.
What is Amazon’s approach to forced labor?
We have zero tolerance for forced labor in our supply chain. We evaluate and address risks of slavery and human trafficking starting with conformance to the Supply Chain Standards which states, among other standards, that:

  • Our suppliers must not use forced labor—slave, prison, indentured, bonded, or otherwise.
  • Our suppliers must not traffic workers or in any other way exploit workers by means of threat, force, coercion, abduction, or fraud. Working must be voluntary, and workers must be free to leave work and terminate their employment or other work status with reasonable notice.
  • Workers must not be required to pay recruitment, hiring, or other similar fees related to their employment; our suppliers must bear or reimburse workers any such costs. All fees and expenses charged to workers must be disclosed to Amazon and communicated to workers in advance of employment.
  • Our suppliers must not require workers to surrender government issued identification, passports, or work permits as a condition of working, and our suppliers may only temporarily hold onto such documents to the extent reasonably necessary to complete legitimate administrative and immigration processing.
  • Workers must be given clear, understandable contracts regarding the terms and conditions of their engagement in a language understood by the worker.
  • Suppliers must ensure that each of its staffing or recruiting agencies comply with our Supply Chain Standards and with the more stringent of the applicable laws of the country where work is performed and the worker’s home country.

Download and read Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards.
Are members of Amazon suppliers’ workforces free to form, join and organize trade unions and to engage in collective bargaining with the company?
Yes. Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards covers Freedom of Association, noting that “Amazon expects that our suppliers respect the rights of workers to establish and join an organization of their own selection. Workers must not be penalized or subjected to harassment or intimidation for the non-violent exercise of their right to join or refrain from joining such legal organizations.”

Download and read Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards.
What is Amazon’s conflict minerals policy, and what steps has Amazon taken to ensure that its manufactured products do not contain conflict minerals?
Amazon conducts due diligence on our private label and contract manufacturing product supply chains, including the potential sourcing of conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and adjoining countries. We do this because we believe it’s the right thing for customers. We expect suppliers to support our effort to identify the origin of designated minerals used in our products.

For 2020, we identified no suppliers that were sourcing minerals through a supply chain that benefitted armed groups in the Democratic Republic of the Congo region. Amazon’s Conflict Minerals Report is made public through our SEC filings and can be found on our Investor Relations site under Corporate Governance.
Does Amazon release a statement in accordance with the United Kingdom Modern Slavery Act?
Yes. Amazon is committed to improving working conditions within its manufacturing supply chain and operations, and recognizes the need to monitor for conditions that put workers at risk of forced labor. Amazon’s UK Modern Slavery Statement is reviewed by multiple teams within Amazon and endorsed by senior leadership annually.
Does Amazon prohibit the use of cotton from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan in its products?
Yes. In 2019, Amazon signed the Responsible Sourcing Network’s public Cotton Pledges, committing to not source cotton from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan for Amazon-owned Private Brands products until the pervasive use of government-mandated forced labor is stopped. In 2021, we began participating in a Responsible Sourcing Network initiative called YESS: Yarn Ethically & Sustainably Sourced, which works to address forced labor in the cotton value chain.

Read more about our commitment to sustainable materials.
What is Amazon’s policy on recruitment fees in its supply chain?
Workers must not be required to pay recruitment, hiring, or other similar fees related to their employment; our suppliers must bear or reimburse workers any such costs. All fees and expenses charged to workers must be disclosed to Amazon and communicated to workers in advance of employment.

Our Supply Chain Standards prohibit all forms of forced labor and human trafficking; this includes charging workers recruitment fees, holding passports or personal documentation, and coercion to work through threats of deportation or contacting immigration authorities. During assessments of Amazon-branded suppliers, we track where workers migrated from and how much they paid in recruitment fees. If fees have been paid, we require the supplier to reimburse workers in full. Forced labor is a hidden crime that is hard to combat. We recognize real progress in this space will only be achieved through collaborative action—by companies, governments, and civil society—to spur system-wide change. Learn more about our approach to forced labor in our annual Modern Slavery Statement.

Download and read Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards.
Does Amazon release a statement in accordance with the California Supply Chain Transparency Act?
Yes. Amazon is committed to improving working conditions within its manufacturing supply chain and operations, and recognizes the need to monitor for conditions that put workers at risk. Amazon has released a California Supply Chain Transparency Act (2010) statement.
Does Amazon integrate social responsibility policies into its purchasing practices?
Yes. Amazon’s purchase and service agreements require our manufacturing suppliers and service providers (e.g. call centers, delivery and fulfillment providers) to comply with our Supply Chain Standards. Suppliers that manufacture Amazon private-label products are assessed for compliance with Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards before we begin ordering products, and we require our suppliers and service providers to meet our Supply Chain Standards as a condition of doing business with us.

Download and read Amazon’s Supply Chain Standards.
Community
What programs, projects, or initiatives is Amazon involved in that benefit society or the communities the company operates in?
At Amazon, we are focused on leveraging our scale and assets for good to strengthen communities where our employees and customers live and work. We work side by side with community partners to find solutions to some of the world’s most pressing challenges and build long-term, innovative programs that have a lasting, positive impact.

Amazon believes that all people should have access to housing they can afford. In January 2021, Amazon launched the Housing Equity Fund, a commitment of more than $2 billion to preserve and create more than 20,000 affordable homes in three communities where we have a high concentration of employees: Washington’s Puget Sound region; Washington, D.C., and Arlington, Virginia, metropolitan areas; and Nashville, Tennessee. Amazon has also committed more than $130 million to our nonprofit partners who are working to fight homelessness. In 2020, we opened the doors to a permanent eight-floor shelter inside an Amazon office building at our Puget Sound headquarters in partnership with Mary’s Place, a Seattle-based provider serving families experiencing homelessness. The shelter is the largest family shelter in the state of Washington, with space for 200 guests each night.

Amazon believes that no family should go without a way to address their basic needs. In 2020, Amazon made in-kind and cash donations equivalent to more than 20 million meals and 13 million essential items to nonprofits, food banks, and strategic partners. We also committed a total of $6.2 million through our Right Now Needs Fund, a flexible fund designed to meet the basic needs of schoolchildren and help eliminate barriers to learning.

As part of our community focus, we work to increase access to high-quality computer science education. Our primary computer science focused initiative is Amazon Future Engineer—a four-part, childhood-to-career program aimed at inspiring and educating 10 million students from underprivileged and underrepresented communities each year to try computer science and coding.

Learn more about Amazon in the Community.
Does Amazon support disaster relief efforts?
Amazon’s disaster relief and response teams leverage our vast operational excellence, cloud computing technologies, and worldwide logistics network to provide fast and effective support to worldwide operations addressing large-scale natural disasters. These strengths enable us to ship Amazon-donated items and items donated by partners to communities as soon as possible after hurricanes, tsunamis, wildfires, and earthquakes. In 2020, we supported the response to 16 natural disasters in 12 countries and partnered with 53 nonprofit service providers to enable critical support for front-line responders and survivors. Together with Amazon customers, we donated more than $22 million in products and cash to support people impacted by natural disasters around the world and first responders fighting those disasters. Donations included more than 12 million relief items, such as masks, bottled water, hygiene products, baby supplies, food, and other essential items.

Learn more about Amazon in the Community.
How has Amazon helped provide aid during the COVID-19 pandemic?
Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, Amazon has helped customers, provided community relief, and invested in cutting-edge research. We invested tens of millions of dollars into these efforts and distributed critical supplies to communities across the world, including 4.5 million masks, 273,000 gallons of hand sanitizer, 140,000 medical gowns, 124,000 face shields, 40,000 hygiene kits, and thousands of contactless thermometers. We delivered more than 12 million meals to seniors, underserved families, and school children in communities across the U.S., the UK, Australia, Singapore, and Spain. Amazon also delivered thousands of laptops and wireless devices on behalf of school districts to low-income students in order to support distance learning. AWS is providing highly scalable and reliable infrastructure capacity, technical support, and services to help customers with their research, remote work and learning, and other solutions to address their needs and the effects that the COVID-19 pandemic is having on communities and businesses.

Amazon is leveraging our scale to get vaccines to people in need. We lent our support to the Biden administration in its effort to vaccinate 100 million people in the first 100 days of Biden’s presidency, vaccinating thousands of people through pop-up clinics at Amazon facilities in Washington, Virginia, and Florida. We also developed a Pop-Up Vaccine Clinic Playbook to help other companies and organizations execute similar vaccination clinics.

In 2020, Amazon launched the Neighborhood Small Business Relief Fund to provide cash grants and free rent to Seattle small businesses that needed assistance. Through this fund, Amazon disbursed $11 million in relief to more than 900 small businesses, supporting local jobs and helping small businesses confront the economic challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Learn more about Amazon in the Community.
Governance
Does Amazon disclose its political contributions?
We have posted a U.S. political expenditure statement on our Investor Relations website under Corporate Governance which is updated annually. As noted in our political expenditures statement, our political expenditures are approved by our Vice President of Public Policy, reviewed by our Senior Vice President for Global Corporate Affairs and by our Senior Vice President and General Counsel, and reported on to our Audit Committee. We include disclosure of each U.S.-based trade association, coalition, charity, or social welfare organization to which we contribute at least $10,000 through the Company’s Public Policy Office, and disclosure of each ballot initiative contribution (including the amount).

For more information, please see Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Does Amazon’s board have oversight over the company’s sustainability initiatives?
Yes. The Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of Amazon’s Board of Directors oversees the company’s environmental, social, and corporate governance policies and initiatives, including the Company’s progress on The Climate Pledge, and risks related to the Company’s operations, supply chain, and customer engagement.

Amazon’s Board of Directors oversee executives’ management of Amazon’s relevant risks and regularly reviews reports from management on various aspects of our business, including related risks and tactics and strategies for addressing them. While the full Board has overall responsibility for risk oversight, the Board has delegated responsibility related to certain risks to the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee, the Leadership Development and Compensation Committee, and the Audit Committee.

Learn more about the Nominating and Corporate Governance Committee of Amazon’s Board of Directors.
How does Amazon select relevant material issues to include in its sustainability reporting?
At Amazon, we take a science-based, customer-centric approach to sustainability. We use a structured life-cycle assessment model to measure and map climate-related risks across our value chain. We also conduct regular materiality assessments to understand the most significant environmental, social, and governance topics across our business over the short, medium, and long term. We monitor risks and prioritize opportunities by taking into account customer and stakeholder expectations, voluntary practices and regulations, industry best practices, trends in financial and sustainability reporting, and emerging topics in news and social media.

Some of our current highest priority sustainability issues are:

  • Climate change, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and sustainable transportation
  • Responsible employment and supply chain practices, including human rights and the safety and well-being of workers in our supply chain
  • Fair and inclusive workplaces, including talent and development
  • Waste, recycling, and the circular economy
  • Response to the COVID-19 pandemic and support for our customers, employees, and communities

Learn more about how Amazon prioritizes our sustainability efforts.
What is Amazon’s anti-bribery policy?
As noted in Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, “Employees may not bribe anyone for any reason, whether in dealings with governments or the private sector. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and similar laws in other countries, prohibit offering or giving anything of value, directly or indirectly, to government officials in order to obtain or retain business. Employees may not make illegal payments to government officials themselves or through a third party. Employees who are conducting business with the government officials of any country must contact the Legal Department for guidance on the law governing payments and gifts to governmental officials.”

Our Supplier Code of Conduct also prohibits bribery. The code states that “Our suppliers must not offer nor accept bribes or other means of obtaining undue or improper advantages to anyone for any reason, whether in dealings with governments or the private sector. Our suppliers must not induce Amazon employees to violate our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.”

For more information, please see Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Does Amazon provide secure and accessible channels through which employees, business partners, or other external parties can raise concerns and report violations (meaning ‘Speak Up’ or ‘Whistleblowing’) in confidence and without risk of reprisal?
Yes. This is described in Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics: “Employees should speak with anyone in their management chain or the Legal Department when they have a question about the application of the Code of Conduct or when in doubt about how to properly act in a particular situation. The Amazon.com Legal Department has developed and maintains reporting guidelines for employees who wish to report violations of the Code of Conduct. These guidelines include information on making reports to the Legal Department and to an independent third party. Please see the reporting guidelines for information and instructions. Amazon.com will not allow retaliation against an employee for reporting misconduct by others in good faith. Employees must cooperate in internal investigations of potential or alleged misconduct. Employees who violate the Code of Conduct will be subject to disciplinary action up to and including discharge.”

For more information, please see Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Does Amazon have written policies covering gifts, hospitality, and expenses which clearly prohibit the offer or receipt of gifts?
Yes. These policies are described in Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics: "Because an employee’s receipt of gifts or services could create a conflict of interest, the Legal Department has developed and maintained guidelines for disclosure of gifts or services received from customers, suppliers, competitors or business partners. Employees who are conducting business with the government officials of any country must contact the Legal Department for guidance on the law governing payments and gifts to governmental officials."

For more information, please see Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Does Amazon have a code of conduct?
Yes. Amazon is strongly committed to conducting our business in a lawful and ethical manner. For more information, please see Amazon’s Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Partnerships
Is Amazon part of any collaborative sustainability initiatives or partnerships?
Yes. Many of the cross-cutting sustainability issues that we prioritize at Amazon are enhanced through partnerships and collaborative initiatives with credible, knowledgeable, and innovative industry partners. Explore our full list of partners.
Does Amazon work with or support external organizations whose mission is to promote diversity in technology?
Yes. We are invested in building the next generation of technical leaders by providing broader access to STEM education, and empowering adults who want to move into technical careers. At Amazon, we realize that there are people who may not have the access to explore the subjects of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) needed for technical careers. We have programs within Amazon and also work with organizations like Code.org, Girls Who Code, and ADA Academy to promote diversity in the STEM pipeline.

Learn more about Amazon’s Diversity and Inclusion efforts.
Safety, Health, and Well-Being
Does Amazon have a formalized health and safety policy?
Yes. Amazon’s Health and Safety policy is covered in our Supply Chain Standards and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics.
Are practices and procedures in place to ensure Amazon employees are safeguarded against occupational injury and illness, dangerous and/or hazardous materials, equipment operation hazards, and non-sanitary working conditions?
Yes. We aim to be Earth’s safest place to work. We are committed to ensuring the safety and well-being of all Amazon employees every day. Our work environment allows almost anyone—regardless of background, skill level, or experience—to work with confidence.

Everyone at Amazon shares ownership in creating a safe workplace, and we invest in resources to help our employees thrive. We are constantly evaluating new technologies and learning opportunities to optimize how employees and leaders build capabilities, receive critical safety information, and prepare to meet future challenges. We are proud of the work environment we provide for employees and we encourage you to come see for yourself with a tour of our fulfillment centers or our corporate headquarters in Seattle.
Does Amazon have a food safety policy?
Yes. Amazon is strongly committed to our customers’ safety and we proactively protect our customers from unsafe food products. We comply with all applicable regulatory requirements wherever we operate and build every phase of our operations to ensure safe, quality food products are delivered to our customers. We listen to our customers’ feedback in real time to stay ahead of any potential food safety concerns.
Does Amazon have a process to manage the safety and wellbeing of contractors or sub-suppliers working on its behalf?
Yes. Please see our Supply Chain Standards and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for details.